Vitamin B6 is a member of the B complex family of vitamins. Learn about the vitamin B6 deficiency symptoms.
Isolated vitamin B6 deficiency is uncommon; inadequate vitamin B6 status is generally associated with low concentrations of other B-complex vitamins, for example vitamin B12 and folic acid. Vitamin B6 deficiency causes biochemical changes that be obvious as the deficiency progresses.
Vitamin B6 deficiency is assigned to microcytic anemia, electroencephalographic abnormalities, dermatitis with cheilosis (scaling around the lips and cracks in the corners of the mouth) and glossitis (swollen tongue), depression and confusion, and weakened immune function. People with borderline vitamin B6 concentrations or mild deficiency may have no deficiency signs or symptoms for months and years. In infants, vitamin B6 deficiency causes irritability, abnormally acute hearing, and convulsive seizures.
End-stage renal diseases, chronic renal insufficiency, and other kidney diseases may cause vitamin B6 deficiency. Additionally, vitamin B6 deficiency migh result from malabsorption syndromes, such as coeliac disease, Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis. Certain genetic diseases, for example homocystinuria, can also cause vitamin B6 deficiency. Some medications, for example antiepileptic drugs, can lead to deficiency with time.
Groups at Risk of Vitamin B6 Inadequacy
Frank vitamin B6 deficiencies are relatively rare in the usa but some individuals may have marginal vitamin B6 status. The next groups are the type of most likely to have inadequate intakes of vitamin B6.
People with Impaired Renal Function
Individuals with poor renal function, including individuals with end-stage renal disease and chronic renal insufficiency, usually have low vitamin B6 concentrations. Plasma PLP concentrations will also be low in patients receiving maintenance kidney dialysis or intermittent peritoneal dialysis, in addition to those who have undergone a kidney transplant, perhaps because of increased metabolic clearance of PLP. Patients with kidney disease often show clinical symptoms much like those of people with vitamin B6 deficiency.
People with Autoimmune Disorders
People with rheumatoid arthritis symptoms often have low vitamin B6 concentrations, and vitamin B6 concentrations often decrease with increased disease severity. These low vitamin B6 levels result from the inflammation caused by the condition and, in turn, increase the inflammation linked to the disease. Although vitamin B6 supplements can normalize vitamin B6 concentrations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis symptoms, they do not suppress producing inflammatory cytokines or decrease amounts of inflammatory markers.
Patients with coeliac disease, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and other malabsorptive autoimmune disorders generally have low plasma PLP concentrations. The mechanisms for this effect aren’t known. However, coeliac disease is associated with lower pyridoxine absorption, and low PLP concentrations in inflammatory bowel disease might be due to the inflammatory response.
Individuals with Alcohol Dependence
Plasma PLP concentrations are usually very low in individuals with alcohol dependence. Alcohol produces acetaldehyde, which decreases net PLP formation by cells and competes with PLP in protein binding. Consequently, the PLP in cells is much more susceptible to hydrolysis by membrane-bound phosphatase. Individuals with alcohol dependence might take advantage of pyridoxine supplementation.
Vitamin B6 will come in multivitamins, in supplements containing other B complex vitamins, and like a stand-alone supplement. The most common vitamin B6 vitamer in supplements is pyridoxine (as pyridoxine hydrochloride [HCl]), although some supplements contain PLP. Vitamin B6 supplements can be found in oral capsules or tablets (including sublingual and chewable tablets) and liquids. Absorption of vitamin B6 from supplements is comparable to that from food sources and doesn’t differ substantially one of the various forms of supplements. Even though body absorbs large pharmacological doses of vitamin B6 well, it quickly eliminates the majority of the vitamin in the urine.
About 28%-36% from the general population uses supplements containing vitamin B6. Adults aged 51 years or older and children younger than 9 are more inclined than members of other age ranges to take supplements containing vitamin B6.
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